Some of the terms commonly used on in the Dominion community include:
Base: The original Dominion, with no expansions. E.g., “In base, Chapel is the best early-game trasher.”
Big Money aka Money: Strictly speaking, a strategy where no Actions are bought at all, only Treasure and Victory. In practice, often used to refer to a strategy emphasizing Treasure and Victory cards that is merely supplemented with one or two Actions. Compare Engine.
Board/Kingdom: The set of cards that make up the game of interest.
Cantrip: Any card that gives at least +1 Card, +1 Action; it costs no action to spend it and it replaces itself in the hand. Can technically refer to Villages, but in practice usually refers to cards like Spy.
Colony Game: Any game in which Colony and Platinum (from Prosperity) are available for purchase.
Counter: A card that acts to neutralize another card (usually an attack), whether directly (e.g., Moat) or indirectly (e.g., Library vs. Militia/Goons).
Cycling: To move quickly through your deck. Chancellor provides an extreme example of cycling, but cards like Warehouse and Laboratory also cycle your deck effectively.
Draw Dead: Generally refers to drawing an Action card when you have no more Actions to play. In context, may refer to drawing an Action card that cannot be effectively used (e.g., Baron without Estate, Moneylender without Copper).
Duchy Dancing: Towards the end of a game, when both players are buying Duchies and neither side is willing or able to take the final Province(s)
Early Game: Early purchases that set in motion the game to come.
Endgame (or Late Game): Players are purchasing almost exclusively victory cards. Often accompanied by jockeying with lower-value victory cards, e.g., PPR.
End on piles: Force the game to end by emptying three or more piles (four or more with 5+ players).
Engine: Loosely defined, the Action cards that “drive” one’s deck. An “engine-based” strategy refers to a strategy emphasizing Actions. Compare Big Money.
Good Stuff Deck: A term coined by Wandering Winder and explained in his article.
Greening : Begin purchasing victory cards.
Junk: Add cards to a deck (preferably an opponent’s) that interfere with the engine being used. Often happens voluntarily in the endgame.
Lab: Short for the card Laboratory, also refers to any card that non-terminally increases your hand-size by one.
Midgame: Most purchases are actions or treasures of value $5 or higher, but rarely with hands above $6 (Province game) or $9 (Colony game); players are refining their strategies and attempting to tune their engines.
Mirror Match: When both players pursue identical or near-identical strategies
Missing the Shuffle: Refers to any cards that aren’t shuffled in the next shuffle. Oftentimes, you want bad cards to miss the shuffle and good cards to stay in the current shuffle.
Non-Terminal (or Non-Terminal Action, sometimes NT): Any action card that gives at least one additional Action.
Opening: Purchases made on the first two turns. Usually clarified by a 4/3 or 5/2 opening.
Opening Split: Treasure values of the first two hands (5/2 or 4/3). Tournament and league play often gives players the same split.
Piles: see “end on piles”
Province Game (rarely, Non-Colony Game): A standard game in which Colony and Platinum are not available.
Pseudo-Trash: Remove cards from your deck without trashing them, e.g., Island.
Sift: Filter through your cards by removing unwanted cards. Similar to cycling, but with more finesses. See, e.g., Warehouse.
Slow Resignation: Continuing to play when the game is lost.
Spammable: Refers to any card that can (often) easily have multiple copies of it played in a single term.
Stack: A deck in which the same card(s) are played either multiple times per turn (or simply every turn for some powerful cards).
Terminal (or Terminal Action): Any action card that does not provide another Action when played.
Terminal Collision: Drawing multiple terminal cards together, such that you can only play one of them
Terminal Silver: Any terminal action that gives $2.
Top-Deck: Place a card on top of your deck that would normally go elsewhere (e.g. Alchemist, Royal Seal).
Three-Pile: Ending a game by emptying a third pile, often while ahead on points.
Trasher (or Deck-thinner): Any card that allows one to remove cards from one’s deck.
Trash-for-Benefit: Any card that gives a benefit at the cost of trashing a card. Apprentice draws additional cards, Salvager gives cash, etc.
Village: Besides the card of the same name, can refer to any card which allows someone to play multiple actions in a turn; most (but not all) such cards have “Village” in their names.
Village Idiot: Village seems like a great card to an inexperienced player, and it is good–but taking Villages without any terminals makes the Villages worthless. Hence, Village Idiot. More loosely, refers to any poor strategy that buys too many Actions.
Virtual +Buy: Cards like Ironworks and Workshop, which allow you to gain an additional card on your turn along with your ordinary Buy
Winning the Split: Getting the most copies of a Kingdom Card from a heavily contested pile, oftentimes a card that all players want as many copies of as possible.
C, S, G, E, D, P: Sometimes used in game analyses for the basic treasure cards and basic victory cards.
BoM: Band of Misfits
BM: Black Market. Sometimes refers to the term Big Money.
BMU: A particular algorithm for playing Big Money that intelligently purchases Duchies
CotR: Coin of the Realm
FV: Fishing Village (rarely, Farming Village, in context)
GM: Grand Market
HoP: Horn of Plenty
HP: Hunting Party
HT: Horse Traders
IGG: Ill-Gotten Gains
JoAT: Jack of All Trades
KC: King’s Court
MV: Mining Village
NV: Native Village
PPR: Penultimate Province Rule
TfB / T4B: Trash-for-benefit
TM: Treasure Map
TR: Throne Room (rarely, Trade Route, in context)